A pronoun stands for or refers to a person, place or thing whose identity is made clear earlier in the text.
Types of pronouns:
1. Personal Pronoun
A personal pronoun is a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender and case. There are four kinds of personal pronouns. They are subjective, objective, possessive and reflexive:
A subjective personal pronoun indicates the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. Subjective personal pronouns are I, you, he, she, he, it, we, you, and they.
- I am a student.
- It is not my duty.
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. Objective personal pronouns are me, you, her, him, it, us, you, and them.
- The teacher will mark you absent.
- A soldier rescued her from the burning hut.
A possessive personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun belongs to someone and defines who owns it. Possessive personal pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs.
- They couldn’t finish their task but we finished ours in time.
- The fault was his.
A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the clause of the sentence. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.
- I can wash my clothes myself.
- Follow what your plan for yourself.
2. Interrogative Pronoun
An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun used to ask a question. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom, which, what, and the compounds formed with the suffix ever. They are whatever, whomever, whichever, and whatever.
- Who saved the drowning child?
- What does a mouse do with its sharp teeth?
- Whom did they appoint the headman of the village?
- Which government department deal with welfare schemes?
- Whose was the article published in the school magazine?
3. Relative Pronoun
A relative pronoun links one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are who, whom, that, and which, and their respective compounds: whoever, whomever, and whichever.
- The student, who came late, was punished by the Headmaster.
- The Old Man and the Sea which is a famous novel is my favourite.
- Nainital which is a famous hill station is visited by people in large numbers.
- Henry, whom I invited for dinner, is my neighbour.
- This is the boy whose parents are missing.
4. Demonstrative Pronoun
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. Demonstrative pronouns are this, these, that, and those.
- This is my pen.
- Is that your house?
- These are the children that live in my neighbourhood.
- Those are some fresh fruits.
- Such are the rewards of loyalty.
5. Distributive Pronoun
The word which treats a noun in a one-at-a-time manner is called a Distributive pronoun.
- Each of the winners received an award.
- Either of the cows can give five litres of milk.
- Neither of the shops was open at that time.
- Everyone got a change to sing a song.
- None of them agreed to the proposal.
6. Reciprocal Pronoun
A reciprocal pronoun expresses a mutual feeling or relationship between the individuals indicated in the plural subject. Reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.
- Two bulls wounded each other with their horn in a fight.
- We should all help one another in time of need.
7. Indefinite Pronoun
An indefinite pronoun refers to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. The most common indefinite pronouns are all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, and someone.
- Someone has stolen my purse.
- Nobody took notice of that wounded man.
- Would anybody provide me with food and shelter?
- Somebody came and broke our flower vase.
8. Intensive Pronoun
An intensive pronoun is a word used to refer to its antecedent or the word that comes before the pronoun. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.