Unseen Passage: Artificial Glaciers

Necessity is indeed the mother of invention. When areas in and around Leh began to experience water shortages, life didn’t grind to a halt. Why? Because Chewang Norphel, a retired civil engineer in the Jammu and Kashmir government came up with the idea of artificial glaciers.

Ladakh, a cold desert at an altitude of 3,000-3,500 metres above sea level, has a low average annual rainfall rate of 50 mm. Glaciers have always been the only source of water. Agriculture is completely dependent on glacier melt unlike the rest of river/monsoon fed India. But over the years with increasing effects of climate change, rainfall and snowfall patterns have been changing, resulting in severe shortage and drought situations. Given the severe winter conditions, the window for farming is usually limited to one harvest season.

It is located between the natural glacier above and the village below. The one closer to the village and lowest in altitude melts first, providing water during April/May, the crucial sowing season. Further layers of ice above melt with increasing temperature thus ensuring continuous supply to the fields. Thus, farmers have been able to manage two crops instead of one. It costs about ` 1,50,000 and above to create one.

Fondly called the “glacier man”, Mr. Norphel has designed over 15 artificial glaciers in and around Leh since 1987. In recognition of his pioneering effort, he was conferred the Padma Shri by President Pranab Mukherjee, in 2015.

There are a few basic steps followed in creating the artificial glacier.

River or stream water at higher altitude is diverted to a shaded area of the hill, facing north, where the winter sun is blocked by a ridge or a mountain range. At the start of winter/November, the diverted water is made to flow onto sloping hill face through distribution channels. Stone embankments are built at regular intervals which impede the flow of water, making shallow pools and freeze, forming a cascade of ice along the slope. Ice formation continues for 3-4 months resulting in a large accumulation of ice which is referred to as an “artificial glacier”.

Q. Answer the following questions:

  1. For how many months does the ice formation continue for?
  2. Find the word in the paragraph 6 which means the same as ‘gathering’?
  3. Mr. Norphel designed ___________ artificial glaciers in Leh.
  4. Which Indian President gave Padma Shri award to Mr. Norphel?
  5. What kind of landform is Ladakh?
    1. Hot desert
    2. Cold desert
    3. Dry desert
    4. Hot and Dry desert
  6. Who was Chewang Norphel?
    1. a retired principal
    2. a retired activist
    3. a retired social worker
    4. a retired civil engineer
  7. In which year Mr. Norphel get Padma Shri award?
    1. 2007
    2. 2015
    3. 2009
    4. 2005
  8. Ladakh is at an altitude of metres above sea level.
    1. 2000-2500
    2. 1500-2000
    3. 3000-3500
    4. 2500-3000


  1. The ice formation continues for 3-4 months.
  2. Accumulation
  3. 15
  4. Mr. Pranab Mukherjee is the Indian President who gave Padma Shri award to Mr. Norphel.
  5. Cold desert
  6. a retired civil engineer
  7. 2015
  8. 3000-3500 metres

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