Note Making: Types of Diabetes

There are two types of diabetes, insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent. 90–95% of the estimated 13–14 million people in the United States with diabetes have non-insulin dependent, or type II diabetes. Because this type of diabetes usually begins in adults over the age of 40 and is most common after the age of 55, it used to be called as adult onset diabetes. Its symptoms often develop gradually and are hard to identify at first; therefore nearly half of all the people with diabetes do not know it. Therefore, someone who has developed Type II diabetes may feel tired or ill without knowing why. This can be particularly dangerous because untreated diabetes can cause damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. While the causes, short–term effects, and treatments of the two types of diabetes differ, both types can cause long–term health problems.

Most importantly, both types affect the body’s ability to use digested food for energy. Diabetes does not interfere with digestion, but it does prevent the body from using an important product of digestion, i.e, glucose, for energy. After a meal, the normal digestive system breaks some food down into glucose. The blood carries the glucose or sugar throughout the body, causing blood glucose levels to rise. In response to this, insulin is released into the blood stream and signals the body tissues to metabolize or burn the glucose for fuel, which causes blood glucose levels to return to normal. The glucose that the body does not use is stored in the liver, muscle or fat.

In both types of diabetes, the normal function of glands is affected. A gland called pancreas makes insulin. In people with insulin-dependent diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin at all. People with non-insulin dependent diabetes usually produce some insulin in their pancreas, but their body tissues do not metabolize the glucose properly, a condition known as insulin resistance.

There’s no cure for diabetes yet. However, there are ways to get relief from its symptoms. Foods that are rich in carbohydrates break down into glucose during digestion, causing blood glucose to rise. Also studies have shown that cooked foods raise blood glucose higher than raw, unpeeled foods. So we should eat such uncooked whole grain foods.

Q. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary .

Facts About Diabetes

  1. Types of diabetes
    1. insulin dependent
    2. non-insulin dependent
  2. Non-insulin dependent–facts
    1. also called type II diabetes
    2. begins by 40 years
    3. common after 55 years
    4. earlier called adult onset diabetes
    5. symptoms
      1. develops gradually
      2. hard to identify at 1st
      3. ½ affected unaware
      4. feeling of tiredness/illness
    6. results: damage to
      1. heart
      2. blood vessels
      3. eyes
      4. kidneys
      5. erves
      6. health
  3. Process of food digestion in body
    1. food broken into glucose
    2. glucose carried through body by blood
    3. causes blood glucose levels to rise
    4. insulin released into blood stream
    5. signals body tissues to metabolize glucose for fuel
    6. blood glucose levels return to normal
    7. excess glucose stored in liver/muscle/ fat
  4. Function of Pancreas
    1. produces insulin
    2. insulin not produced in insulin-dependent diabetes
    3. some insulin produced in non-insulin dependent diabetes
      1. body tissues do not metabolize glucose
      2. known as insulin resistance
  5. Remedies
    1. no cure yet
    2. only relief possible like
      1. avoid food rich in carbohydrates
      2. avoid cooked food
      3. eat raw, unpeeled food
      4. eat uncooked, whole grain food

Abbreviations

  • thru – through

Q. Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words.

The different types of diabetes include insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent. The non-insulin dependent diabetes is also called type II diabetes. It begins by the age of 40 and is most common after 55 years of age. It was earlier called adult onset diabetes. This type of diabetes is a gradually developing one, hard to identify at first, half of the people are affected unaware and results in feeling of tiredness/illness. It results in damaging heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and health. The process of food digestion in body covers food broken into glucose, glucose carried out in body by blood, causes blood glucose levels to rise, insulin is released into blood stream, signals body tissues to metabolize glucose for fuel, blood glucose levels return to normal and excess glucose is stored in liver or muscle or fat. The function of the pancreas in body is to produce insulin. The insulin is not produced in insulindependent diabetes. Only some quantity of insulin is produced in non-insulin dependent diabetes. As a result, the body tissues do not metabolize glucose. This is known as insulin resistance. There has been no cure identified for it yet. However, only relief is possible through remedies like avoiding food rich in carbohydrates, avoiding cooked food, eating raw, unpeeled food and eating uncooked, whole grain food.

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